This is the continuation of the Introducton where we study Russian Alphabet and we are more “free” than in LESSONS that demand more serious approach from the student and from the teacher =)
The last letter we learned was Д . Now we continue up to H.
And we shall try to replace a translation in English in cases where it is possible. Why should we translate a word КОРОВА if by the picture we can see that it is a cow and not a horse or a goat =)
Yet some words even with English translation need some explanation. Why and in which case the word is used.
WE shall also mark with F – feminine gender, with M – masculine gender amd with N – neuter “gender”.The stress on vowls we mark in BOLD letters. Sometimes we make an imitation of a Hindi long sound in Latin script, sometimes we mark by a capital letter. To write a textbook is a tiresome and non paid job . so do not expect from me an ideal and unversal order here =)
The letter ” Е “
F—ЕДА ( yedA ) – food, “khaana”
M—ЕДИНЫЙ (yedeenyi) – universal
M—ЕСТЕСТВЕННЫЙ -yestesstvennyi- ( natural, ” prakritik”)
M- ЕВРЕЙ -yevrei , sing. ЕВРЕИ- pl. Jews,” yahoodi”
On the photo orthodox religious Jews
N- ЕВРО – evro – european currency
ЕФРЕЙТОР – yefreitor – “senior soldier”, usually commander of 10 privates, lance-corporal, lance naik, ranking above private and below corporal. Hitler during WW I was ЕФРЕЙТОР. The shevrons on the photo are of the Soviet Army but ONE stripe remains unchanged today.
The letter ” Ё “
M—ЁЖ ( Yozh) Ё is prononced as the first sound in English ” yours”
F—ЁЛКА ( Yolka) , ordinary ЁЛКА in a forest or New Year ЁЛКА
M-–ЛЁД ( lyod ) – ice
M—ПЁС ( pyos ) – male dog )
МОЁ (moyo) – my ( mera) to neuter things
The letter ” Ж “
F—ЖИЗНЬ ) zhizn-ь ) – life, ” jeevan”
F—ЖОПА -( zhopa) an American expression and word ” ASS”, In Russian a very rude word. Can be used if ЖОПА is too big and ugly.
Almost never this word is applicable to a young slim girl like Americans use it. For girls it is ( F)-–ПОПКА =)
F—ЖОПА of man , in plural -ЖОПЫ , as in the picture
Not polite but somebody will also say to this – ЖОПА
Here in the hall and at the painting – these are young females’ ПОПКА ( if sing.) or ПОПКИ ( if plural as in this picture ) =)
F-–ЖАБА ( zhaba) – ( only for big size ” mendak” )
M—ЖАСМИН ( zhasmin) – jasmin flowers
The letter ” З “
M—ЗАЯЦ ( Zaayats) – it is not a rabbit. It is a hare
M—ЗВЕРЬ ( zver-ь)- “hinsak jaanvar” – dangerous or flesh eating forest animals, in plural -ЗВЕРИ ( zveri)- volves, bears, foxes, lions, jackals )
F—ЗЕБРА ( zebra)
( like in some foreign combined words it is a very rare case of ” double stress”- the first is very weak and the second is strong ) – because it is a ZOO Park ( “chiriyaghar” magar idhar sirf ek “chiriya” naazar aati hai aur “chiriya” ke liye voh kaafi bari hai =)
F—ЗАКУСКА ( zakUska) – that is very important thing for Rusians as after drinking hard liquer 40% one must have ЗАКУСКА – that is everything to eat but not the first hot liquid dish like soup =)
ЗЕЛЁНЫЙ ( green colour ) – for masc in sing.
ЗЕЛЁНАЯ – (for fem. in sing ) Like ЗЕЛЁНАЯ ТРАВА -F (trava)- green grass. though some tings are not “countable” in Russian – like “trava”-grass, salt, ( but not many such words)
ЗЕЛЁНЫЕ – for plurals, irrespective of gender
ЗЕЛЁНЫЙ ЛЕС ( M) ( zelyonyi les) – ( green forest )
F—ЗЕЛЁНКА – It is a new MILITARY slang that appeared during war in Afghanistan, than returned in a military compaigns in Chechya, now in the East of Ukraine and on the border between Syria and Turkie. That means some belts of high bush and small trees in otherwise mailny forestless places ( mainly in mountaines) where the enemy can hide his soldiers and even mortars and vehicles.
First photo – the defence of Slavyansk city in 2014. But “zelyonka” is behind the soldiers. On the second – an armoured vehicle is hidden in “zelyonka”. Very dangerous place in offensive with small forces or for army intelligence operations as on one hand ЗЕЛЁНКА makes it possible to move unnoticed but there may be an ambush.
The letter ” И “
F- ИНДИЯ-indiya – bhaarat
ИНДИЕЦ- indiyets- indian citizan
M- ИНДУС – indus – a Hindu
M-ИНДУИЗМ -induizm – Hindu faith
F-ИНД – ind – the Indus river
M-ИВАН – ivan – a male russin first name
M-ИЗБИРАТЕЛЬ – izbiratel- ” elector”
ИЗБИРАТЕЛИ – izbiratyeli – ” electorate”
F-ИДЕОЛОГИЯ – Ideologiya – “Ideology”
N- ИЗНАСИЛОВАНИЕ – iznasilovanie – “Rape”
N-ИМУЩЕСТВО -imuscestvo — ” propery”
M-ИНЖЕНЕР – injener – engineer
As you can see words beginning with “И ” are mostly of non Russian origin. But many Rusian adjectives begin with “И ”
The letter ” Й “
There are very few words beginning with ” Й” and these are of non Russian origin. But in the end of Russian words letter ” Й” is prononced very often.
Йога -( yuoga)
Йогурт ( yogurt )
The letter ” К “
M-–КОЗЁЛ ( kozyol) Sometimes is used for insulting a MAN.
КОЗЛЫ ( kozly ) In plural. And also can be an insult for MEN.
F—КОЗА ( No insult. Very rarely used for young females )
M-–КОНЬ ( kon-ь ) male horse
F-–КАСТРЮЛЯ ( kastryulya)
КАПИТАН (kapitan) sing. ( “Captain”) КАПИТАНЫ- plural.
КАПИТАН may belong to the Army and Air Force ( or Police) – one rank only – next after the senior lieutenant and befor the Major.
КАПИТАН may also belong to the Navy and than he may have three ranks equal to Army ranks ( Captain of the third – one star- rank as an Army Major. second rank as an Army 2 stars Lieutenant – Colonel and the 3 stars the Captain of the First Rank is equal to an Army or Air Force Colonel. The chevrons are the same with the army but black or white in colors. Usually black. Uniform for a parade is white.
The non Navy – merchant ship Captain has chevrons without stars and non military uniform.
The Air Force captain – КАПИТАН
КАПИТАН ПЕРВОГО РАНГА ( kapitan pervogo ranga )
The Navy Captain of the First rank ( equal to Air Force Colonel) –
The captain of a non military ship. No military rank and no military uniform.
The letter ” Л “
M—ЛЕВ ( lev) – the first sound as Hindi “la”- soft
F—ЛЬВИЦА ( l-ь-vitsa) – here the soft sound is written
F—ЛОШАДЬ ( loshad-ь ) – usually irrespective of male or a female horse. but somitimes for female horse.
M—ЛЁД ( liod)- see picture above with Ё
Here I should notice that many Indians study Russian as if they were British. They combine two English sounds to make a Russian one. IT IS A MISTAKE. For instance, why Indians should ” make” soft “l” if they have the same soft ” la” in Hindi ?
Soft or hard Russian “la” depends on the following vowels or if the soft sound is written. For instance. Russian cannot pronounce ЛЕВ with hard ” la” as it will sound as ” ЛЭВ ” ( “Э” like in Amarican ” cat, sat, mat) – the way some non Russians from the Caucasus mountines may pronounce it. But in Russian the word ” ЛЭВ ” does not exist. Use Hindi “la” for a soft Russian “Л” and that will be fine.
F—ЛОЖКА ( lozhka) “Л” is hard here. “Ж“- the sound in the middle ( I remind it for you ) is just as in English ” pleasure“. It is a foreign word for them but they pronounce it easily. The problem is they cannot WRITE it. As such letter does not exist in English Alphabet there are a few words with this sound in English. There is no such a sound in Hindi also but if you can pronounce the English ” pleasure” correctly, as Angrezi say it, than it is no problem to pronounce it in Russia as it is the same sound.
M—ЛУК ( the L is hard. If soft it will be another word ” lyuk”. When a tank goes into battle the kommader closes ” lyuk” above him…
( there are also two words that are prononced the same way but one means ONION and the other means an ancient weapon…
The letter ” М”
F—МАТЬ ( mat-ь ) ” mata” , mother
N-—МОРЕ – ( more ) – the sea. Not angrezi ” more” but you shold always remember ” Vi sei hau it iz riten” =)
F—МОРКОВЬ ( morkov-ь )
F—МЕДАЛЬ ( medal-Ь ) , the higher award is ОРДЕН (M) ( order). If a medal can be civilian and can be given even as a school medal. The order is mostly military ( thogh there are a few orders for civilians).
The Soviet ” Red Star” purely military order
Usually medals are placed on the left side and orders on the other side of the chest. Exept the Gold Star ( it is really GOLD) 0f the Hero of the Soviet Union ( before 1992) and now the same in form ” the Hero of Russia”. This is a rare and the highest award and it is not an order – it is a sigh of the highest recoginition by the State of the bearer’s war heroism. And it is kept above all MEDALS ( separate from orders). In a way it is like a status, higher than any order. On the photo you can see a pilot of helicopter who has two Soviet military orders and the Hero Star he got in 2001 during the war in Chchnya.
On the photo – ПОДПОЛКОВНИК ( podpolkovnik ) – Lieutenant – Colonel
МАЙОР (maiyor). sing. МАЙОРЫ ( maiory. plural) Military rank in Army and the Air Force and a Police rank in Police. In Army МАЙОР is usually a commander of a battalion or at the equal post . The first Senior officer rank ( the last -Colonel). Higher – Generals in Army and Air Force and Admirals in the Navy.
At photo a film actor playing the role of a Major during WWII. The shevron is the same as it was 75 yeras ago.
In Russian films as in Bolliwood, film actors even in “war conditions” usually look more handsome than ordinary people in real life =)
The letter ” Н “
M—НОЛЬ ( nol-ь ) – “zero”
НЕТ – ( net ) – “No”
M—НАМАЗ ( namaaz) – muslim prayer
( You will not beleive it but it is Moscow 2010. All this ” sea of humanity” to the horizon are Muslim MIGRANTS from Central Asia. Local Moscow Muslims cannot enter their masjeed as there are too many gastarbaiters taking their place)
F-–НОЧЬ -( noch-ь ) – “night ”
НОВЫЙ ( novyi ) – ” new’ for masc
НОВАЯ ( novaya ) ” new ” for fem.
F-–НАТАЛИЯ ( nataliya ) a female first name.
M – НОЖ ( nozh- sing) НОЖИ ( nozhi- plural) – knife
НОЖНИЦЫ ( always plural) – ( nozhnitsy)
F- НЕФТЬ – neft- ( crude oil ) – non coutable like salt, sugar, etc
M- НЕФТЕПРОВОД – nefteprovod – oil pipelene
НЕФТЬ В ЦИСТЕРНЕ -neft- v tsisterne ( F) – railway oil tank
НЕФТЯНОЙ СУПЕРТАНКЕР -neftyanoy sopertanker ( M) – oil supertanker
(F ) ЦЕНА НА НЕФТЬ – tsena na neft- oil price
НЕФТЯНАЯ СКВАЖИНА ( F ) – neftyanaya skvazheena – oil well
НЕФТЯНАЯ ( adjective) БУРОВАЯ( adjective) СКВАЖИНА
-neftyanaaya burovaaya skvaazhina – Oil well drilling
( To be continued)
If you missed earlier texts on the subject here are the links